In pluralistic ignorance and the bystander effect, it seems to come down to the fear of standing out and more so, the fear of rejection. It seems, in these situations, the brain automatically assumes the worst. For example, when a teacher lectures on unrelated material and asks for question, nobody answers. Although they are all confused, they may interpret the inaction of their classmates to mean that they all understand the material. The individual assumes that they are the one that is behind in the class and for fear of seeming mentally deficient, they remain quiet. With the bystander effect, this holds but the element of duty is introduced and complicates the matter. In both cases, perhaps some sort of exposure/implosive therapy may work as a preventative measure against inaction in applicable situations. If the individuals fear can be removed from the situation, we may be able to limit the effects of pluralistic ignorance and the bystander effect.